6

Recently i shrinked an ext4 filesystem size to 500GB

df -h
Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda2       493G   64G  404G  14% /

now i want to shrink the partition size to fit exactly to the filesystem size.

I tried to used parted and the resizepart command. The problem is when parted asks for the new size. If i choose 500GB the resulting partition is smaller from 500GB and as a result the underlying filesystem cannot fit on this partition. Any hint on how to do the correct size calculations?

1
  • 2
    IMO, you're doing this backwards. Shrink your file system below your target partition size, shrink the partition, then resize the filesystem to fill the partition.. You don't need to calculate anything, the default is to use all the space available in the partition in resize2fs. The partition size dictates the max filesystem size, not the other way around.
    – user143703
    Aug 14 '16 at 20:04
11

Sizes reported by df will be incorrect as they account only for data blocks and miss blocks used internally by the filesystem as well as the reserved blocks.

The easy way is to shrink your filesystem to be smaller than you want by at least 10%. Resize the partition to the size you want then grow the filesystem with resize2fs.

If you want to calculate it by hand you have to know how large the filesystem is internally. Check this with tune2fs -l /dev/sda2 and multiply the Block count by the Block size. When resizing the partition in parted switch the units to sectors with unit s and print the table to get the start sector and logical sector size. Divide the total size in bytes from above by the sector size. Round up to the nearest multiple of 2048 and resize to this number of sectors (end sector = size in sectors + start sector - 1).

Equation (runable in python just fill in the first 4 values):

block_count = N
block_size = N
sector_size = N
start_sector = N
fs_size = block_count * block_size
fs_sectors = fs_size/sector_size
part_sectors = ((fs_sectors-1)/2048+1)*2048
end_sector = start_sector + part_sectors - 1
print "Partition start: %d end: %d size: %d"%(start_sector,end_sector,part_sectors)
print "Resize in parted with: \nresizepart <number> %ds"%(end_sector)
1
  • Arg! Was looking sooo good, until: Error: The resize command has been removed in parted 3.0
    – dsz
    Aug 23 at 22:52
2

Here is an example of the whole process.

This is our hard disk:

root@debian:~# fdisk /dev/loop0

Command (m for help): p
Disk /dev/loop0: 4,9 GiB, 5243928576 bytes, 10242048 sectors
Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disklabel type: dos
Disk identifier: 0xc5127fad

Device       Boot Start     End Sectors  Size Id Type
/dev/loop0p1       8192 9765625 9757434  4,7G 83 Linux

it contains a single partition (/dev/loop0p1) that is 4.7GB in size. This is the file system on the partition:

root@debian:~# df -h
/dev/loop0p1    4,7G    2,1G     0  45% /mnt

By default, it has the same size as the partition (4.7GB). But only 2.1GB (45%) of the filesystem is used. This means we could potentially shrink the filesystem and partition to just 2.1 GB without losing any data.

The first step is to use resize2fs with the -M switch on the partition. Similar to a disk defragmenter, this command will attempt to move all files to the beginning of the file system to form one contiguous block. This then allows to shrink the file system to its smallest possible size.

root@debian:~# resize2fs -M /dev/loop0p1

The file system looks now like this:

root@debian:~# df -h
/dev/loop0p1    2,1G    2,1G     0  100% /mnt

The hard disk now contains a 4.7GB partition with a 2.1GB file system in it that is 100% used. The next step is to shrink the partition size to fit the smaller file system.

For that, we need to calculate the filesystem size. The dumpe2fs tool is very useful for that, it shows detailed information about a file system.

root@debian:~# dumpe2fs -h /dev/loop0p1
dumpe2fs 1.43.4 (31-Jan-2017)
Filesystem volume name:   <none>
Last mounted on:          /
Filesystem UUID:          7d5ec9a4-cc65-4433-95e2-6536e4fd56d6
Filesystem magic number:  0xEF53
Filesystem revision #:    1 (dynamic)
Filesystem features:      has_journal ext_attr resize_inode dir_index filetype extent flex_bg sparse_super large_file huge_file dir_nlink extra_isize
Filesystem flags:         signed_directory_hash 
Default mount options:    journal_data_writeback user_xattr acl
Filesystem state:         clean
Errors behavior:          Continue
Filesystem OS type:       Linux
Inode count:              139392
Block count:              565950
Reserved block count:     7825
Free blocks:              8611
Free inodes:              2296
First block:              0
Block size:               4096

This tells us that there are 565950 blocks and the block size is 4096 bytes. This allows us to calculate the filesystem size:

565950 blocks * 4096 bytes = 2318131200 bytes

From that, we can calculate the filesystem size in sectors. From the fdisk output above, we know that the hard disk sector size is 512 bytes:

2318131200 bytes / 512 = 4527600 sectors

Because the partition does not start at sector 0, we need to add the start sector from the fdisk output:

4527600 + 8192 (start sector) = 4535792

This is the new end sector for our partition. Just to play it safe, add 10 sectors (about 5 KB) to that number: 4535802

Now we can use parted to shrink the partition to this new end sector. The "unit s" command is used to switch the units to sectors.

root@debian:~# parted
GNU Parted 3.2
Using /dev/sda

(parted) select /dev/loop0   
                                         
Using /dev/loop0

(parted) p

Model: Loopback device (loopback)
Disk /dev/loop0: 5244MB
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: msdos
Disk Flags: 

Number  Start   End     Size    Type     File system  Flags
 1      4194kB  5000MB  4996MB  primary  ext4

(parted) unit s                                                           
(parted) p

Model: Loopback device (loopback)
Disk /dev/loop0: 10242048s
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: msdos
Disk Flags: 

Number  Start  End       Size      Type     File system  Flags
 1      8192s  9765625s  9757434s  primary  ext4

(parted) resizepart 1 4535802  
                                       
Warning: Shrinking a partition can cause data loss, are you sure you want to
continue?
Yes/No? yes      
                                                     
(parted) p     
                                                       
Model: Loopback device (loopback)
Disk /dev/loop0: 10242048s
Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
Partition Table: msdos
Disk Flags: 

Number  Start  End       Size      Type     File system  Flags
 1      8192s  4535802s  4527611s  primary  ext4

It gives us a warning about potential data loss, but because we moved all data to the beginning of the partition before, this can safely be ignored. Done! We now have a 2.1GB partition with a 2.1GB filesystem that's 100% occupied.

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