It depends on what OS the VM is to some extent, but yes, you can.
I would actually do this with a copy of the VM's hard drive mounted directly on another computer with full access to things like windows update, but WinPE should work too.
Rough instructions on how to do so are here at:
but you essentially use
Dism /Image:W:\ /Cleanup-Image /RestoreHealth
where W:\ is your offline drive mounted. This should allow you to fix it from windows update
If that doesn't work, you can use the /Source: flag to specify a source.
DISM /mount-Image /ImageFile:D:\sources\install.wim /index:1 /mountdir:C:\WIM\ /readonly
where D:\ is an install disc and C:\WIM is an empty directory
you should be able to use
Dism /Image:W:\ /Cleanup-Image /RestoreHealth /Source:C:\WIM\windows