So I have a server running Windows Server 2012 r2 with configured AD, DHCP, DNS and File Server. There are a few users which have the same profile path. And I have a client running Windows 7, that has a modified Default profile. I logged in as one user on Windows 7, and I can see a modified Default profile. When I log in as another user on Windows 7, it gives me an error "You have been logged in with a temporary profile. Profile folder on server has full access for all users.
There are a few users which have the same profile path.
That is your problem. You cannot point multiple user accounts to the same profile ... well you can, but then it won't work.
You need to use Mandatory User Profiles to achieve something at least similar to what you want to do.