So I've spent the last few hours trying to resolve this and have had no luck.
I have a Hyper-V 2016 Server running on AMD hardware. It has an ASUS TPM (though I've tried a Gigabyte TPM as well). However, it doesn't recognize it as a TPM.
Before I moved to Hyper-V server, I had the same issue on a GUI install of Windows, however I was able to resolve by manaully choosing the generic MS TPM driver, and then it worked.
Hyper-V server has no GUI, so that option isn't available.
Here's what I've tried:
Manually installing TPM.inf. That fails cause hardware ID doesn't match.
Pnputil seems more focused on 3rd party drivers
Devcon fails when pointing inf to hardware util.
Installing the official tpm drivers from Vendor while I was using a GUI windows didn't work, as Bitlocker didn't recognize it as a valid TPM, so I've not tried that on Hyper-V.