In general (as far as I can see) the main infrastructure/configuration management systems (Puppet, Chef, Ansible, and SaltStack) are based on the philosophy that your servers are "cattle" and not "pets", and it seems that they can be antagonistic to the idea that you would ever make a configuration change directly to a server.
Although I've worked with Chef and Puppet and Salt, it has always been from the point of view of a developer working with Vagrant to get individual boxes set up for development, so my experience doesn't help answer this question.
The question is: do any of these systems support the use case where you make a change directly to a server, and leave it there for a time without worrying that a local daemon is going to overwrite it with the official configuration? You should be able to make the change (and ideally set the time window during which it is protected from overwriting) without any significant changes to (e.g.) Chef recipes or Salt states. The whole purpose of this use case is to avoid letting a five-minute configuration change be bogged down by corporate friction and the complications of finding the right (e.g.) salt state and making sure there are no side effects and going through the release/deployment cycle and testing to make sure you didn't bork anything in the process.
If you want a more concrete example, suppose you want to adjust your logrotate settings for a number of logs, to balance saving drive space and access to historical data. You have an idea of how much data you'll save at any given setting, and how much data you think you need to keep, but you're not 100% sure. It would be nice to start out just making the change, and seeing (1) anyone complains that they need more historical data for some debugging task, or (2) you're not saving as much drive space as you expected and need to save.
A five-minute change can actually be a five minute change, if your configuration mangagement system allows it to be one, and then once you're positive that you want those changes on all of your boxes that fulfill a particular role, you can letting Chef/Puppet/Salt/Ansible manage that for you.
Note: I'm not asking about a use case where the config management system is not yet managing a certain type of config file, but a case where it is already managing a certain type of config file, but you want to make local changes and have them take precedence on that given machine, and not get overwritten.
Do any of these systems support my use case? (Without requiring me to fight with the system or do backflips to make it work.)