Our company is a Windows shop with Windows Active Directory deployed full time. We have a mix of Windows 7 and Windows 10 machines. I understand authentication of Linux machines when I am inside the company network. I am not sure how the authentication happens over the internet. Could somebody shed some light on how the authentication happens over the internet when I login to my Windows machine i.e. after boot up and in the login screen what are steps that happen when I put my AD user ID and password.
Also if ADFS is involved is there a way to know the servers involved so that I can configure my Linux machine?
PS: I am pretty sure that we do not do a VPN login.