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When a directory contains some files with non-empty extended attributes, all the attribute values can be shown as follows:

$ getfattr -d *
# file: file1
user.comment="comment1"

# file: file2
user.comment="comment2"

This should work for all the Linux distributions.

Is it possible to list only the files whose user.comment extended attribute has a specific value, for example comment1? If yes, how?

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Try issuing getfattr -n user.comment --only-values * | grep -B 1 "comment1"

This will display the user.comment values of all files and filter the output with grep. You can of course use more sophisticated approaches, for example with find -exec

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