According to this guide for setting up an HTTP(S) load balancer in GCP:
The client SSL session terminates at the load balancer. Sessions between the load balancer and the instance can either be HTTPS (recommended) or HTTP. If HTTPS, each instance must have a certificate.
From reading online about load balancers, the HTTPS -> LB -> HTTP setup is called SSL offloading, and is not an uncommon network configuration.
Why do the GCP docs recommend using an HTTPS connection to talk to compute instances? I cannot find any reason why this would be unsafe, as long as the compute instances only allow insecure HTTP communication with the load balancer.