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What is the difference between DNS resolver and DNS recursor?

What are their core responsibilities?

Why "A DNS recursor is a resolver but a DNS reslover is not a DNS recursor?

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Resolver is a broader term; there are multiple forms of resolvers, one of which is the recursive mode resolver (aka recursor).

Another very common form of resolver is the stub resolver, essentially the regular name resolution library/service included with operating systems, which only sends queries (having RD set) to one or more configured recursive mode resolvers (or forwarders).

RFC7719 is an informational document covering DNS terminology, you may want to consult section 5, DNS Servers and Clients.

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