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I have SSD(system drive) and HDD. The HDD is used as backup for the SSD. I had to reinstall my Ubuntu 16.04 and now I can not transfer my backup from the HDD to the SSD using rsync(I have done it multiple times before, but the current HDD is new one and this is the first time I encounter issues).

Transfer command:

rsync -a --append-verify --info=progress2 /mnt/backup_hdd/backup /

When the backup was created the following directories were excluded:

/boot
/sys
/dev
/media
/mnt
/proc
/var/run
/var/lock
/etc/fstab
/var/cache

So, I think it is safe to restore my backup while system is running on the target SSD(/)

The transfer started very very slowly with many freezes. For example for every 100MB transferred there was a freeze of like 1 min during which rsync progress bar didn't change at all. And the sometime the transfer was like 10MB per minute. I waited for like 1hr and only around 3GB were transferred(something which I have never witnessed before with the same procedure but different HDD)

So, I tried to experiment. I created some big(11GB) file and transferred it from SSD to the HDD:

 sudo rsync -a --append-verify --info=progress2 huge_video.mp4 /mnt/backup_hdd/
 11,542,519,808 100%  164.78MB/s    0:01:06 (xfr#1, to-chk=0/1)

The file was transferred fast enough for ~1 min.

Then I did the opposite - transferring the same file from the HDD to the SSD:

sudo rsync -a --append-verify --info=progress2 /mnt/backup_hdd/huge_video.mp4 /home/from_backup.mp4

And again the same problem. Freezing and very low transfer rate.

I don't get it. Is it possible that HDD is broken in such way that it can be written to easily, but causing issues when reading from?

EDIT

Output of test of HDD speed:

 sudo hdparm -Tt /dev/sdb

/dev/sdb:
 Timing cached reads:   17610 MB in  2.00 seconds = 8822.60 MB/sec
 Timing buffered disk reads:   2 MB in 33.07 seconds =  61.92 kB/sec

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