I know most Linux network services are linked to libwarp.a (tcp-wrappers) and this can be check via the ldd command. But can't seem to find how to list all the network services being linked to libwarp.a.

After some waiting, I created a dump way myself. Run the script below in /usr/sbin

find ./ -type f -exec echo {} \; -exec ldd {} \; | egrep "\\./|libwrap" | less

Found 5 in CentOS7. Is there a correct way to do this?

1 Answer 1


There are many ways to do it, but first you will want to search for binaries linking to libwrap.so.

My one liner is (broken into separate lines for readability):

for file in /usr/sbin/*
    ldd $file 2>/dev/null | grep -q libwrap.so && echo $file

I've selected all the files I want to look at, here in /usr/sbin, but you can look elsewhere if you want.

I suppress error output from ldd because it's noisy.

Using -q causes grep to not output anything (because seeing a bunch of libwrap.so would be pointless). And by using && I only run echo if grep found a match.

So I get:

$ for file in /usr/sbin/*; do ldd $file 2>/dev/null | grep -q libwrap.so && echo $file; done
  • Thanks Michael. I learn -q and && today from this. I was thinking that it's normal for one who started to learn tcp-wrapper would be interested in knowing what are linked to it and hence there would be a common & easy method to list it out, no scripting required. I installed nfs to see do if I got the same result as you. Now I wonder, are the services "pre-linked" or linked during installation of nfs-utils?
    – Yew Hang
    May 5, 2018 at 15:02

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