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I have a server (virtual) running Linux (Ubuntu 16.04 amd64). It has 8gb memory allocated, and it's all being used, but i don't know by what.

root@server:~# free -k
              total        used        free      shared  buff/cache   available
Mem:        8176980     7892288      121580       22000      163112       94516
Swap:       1572860      206800     1366060

root@server:~# grep VmHWM /proc/*/status | awk 'BEGIN {tot=0} {tot+=$2} END {print tot}'
4293060

Why doesn't the sum of VmHWM sum up to something closer to 8GB? And how can i find out what is eating up memory (and causing the server to swap)? And is there some good site that explains Linux memory/resource usage in a detailed but clear way? :)

Some more info:

root@server:~# uname -a
Linux server 3.13.0-67-generic #110-Ubuntu SMP Fri Oct 23 13:24:41 UTC 2015 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux

root@server:~# cat /proc/meminfo 
MemTotal:        8176980 kB
MemFree:          151200 kB
Buffers:           10420 kB
Cached:            77100 kB
SwapCached:        27780 kB
Active:          2870576 kB
Inactive:         837248 kB
Active(anon):    2834228 kB
Inactive(anon):   808112 kB
Active(file):      36348 kB
Inactive(file):    29136 kB
Unevictable:           0 kB
Mlocked:               0 kB
SwapTotal:       1572860 kB
SwapFree:        1359252 kB
Dirty:               176 kB
Writeback:             0 kB
AnonPages:       3594152 kB
Mapped:            41096 kB
Shmem:             22036 kB
Slab:              65724 kB
SReclaimable:      39444 kB
SUnreclaim:        26280 kB
KernelStack:        5240 kB
PageTables:        37636 kB
NFS_Unstable:          0 kB
Bounce:                0 kB
WritebackTmp:          0 kB
CommitLimit:     5661348 kB
Committed_AS:    4266360 kB
VmallocTotal:   34359738367 kB
VmallocUsed:      289196 kB
VmallocChunk:   34359442456 kB
HardwareCorrupted:     0 kB
AnonHugePages:   2009088 kB
HugePages_Total:       0
HugePages_Free:        0
HugePages_Rsvd:        0
HugePages_Surp:        0
Hugepagesize:       2048 kB
DirectMap4k:       65472 kB
DirectMap2M:     8323072 kB
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Try comparing it at any time with result of vmrss see if it match.

Also try disabling transparent hugepages.And check with virtualization admin and see if the whole 8 gb are reserved or not.

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