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first off, there is a very similar question to mine. I am aware of that, however the method the people on this thread presented unfortunately didn't work in the same expected way for me as it did for them.

That's why I am creating a new question.


I have installed a mail server on a Debian based Raspibian system with Dovecot and Postfix.

Output of apt list --installed | grep dovecot:

dovecot-core/stable,now 1:2.2.27-3+deb9u2 armhf [installed]
dovecot-imapd/stable,now 1:2.2.27-3+deb9u2 armhf [installed]
dovecot-managesieved/stable,now 1:2.2.27-3+deb9u2 armhf [installed]
dovecot-pop3d/stable,now 1:2.2.27-3+deb9u2 armhf [installed]
dovecot-sieve/stable,now 1:2.2.27-3+deb9u2 armhf [installed]

Output of apt list --installed | grep postfix

postfix/stable,now 3.1.8-0+deb9u1 armhf [installed]
postfix-sqlite/stable,now 3.1.8-0+deb9u1 armhf [installed,automatic]

Now to my problem I face: I can send emails and according to the files in ~/Maildir/new also receive emails like with any other normal working mail server. However my problem is that I don't get any emails to my inbox.

I don't know where in the configuration for Dovecot and Postfix my mistake lies.

This is the output of /etc/dovecot/conf.d/10-mail.conf

     1  ##
     2  ## Mailbox locations and namespaces
     3  ##
     4
     5  # Location for users' mailboxes. The default is empty, which means that Dovecot
     6  # tries to find the mailboxes automatically. This won't work if the user
     7  # doesn't yet have any mail, so you should explicitly tell Dovecot the full
     8  # location.
     9  #
    10  # If you're using mbox, giving a path to the INBOX file (eg. /var/mail/%u)
    11  # isn't enough. You'll also need to tell Dovecot where the other mailboxes are
    12  # kept. This is called the "root mail directory", and it must be the first
    13  # path given in the mail_location setting.
    14  #
    15  # There are a few special variables you can use, eg.:
    16  #
    17  #   %u - username
    18  #   %n - user part in user@domain, same as %u if there's no domain
    19  #   %d - domain part in user@domain, empty if there's no domain
    20  #   %h - home directory
    21  #
    22  # See doc/wiki/Variables.txt for full list. Some examples:
    23  #
    24  #   mail_location = maildir:~/Maildir
    25  #   mail_location = mbox:~/mail:INBOX=/var/mail/%u
    26  #   mail_location = mbox:/var/mail/%d/%1n/%n:INDEX=/var/indexes/%d/%1n/%n
    27  #
    28  # <doc/wiki/MailLocation.txt>
    29  #
    30  mail_location = mbox:~/Maildir:INBOX=/var/mail/%u
    31
    32  # If you need to set multiple mailbox locations or want to change default
    33  # namespace settings, you can do it by defining namespace sections.
    34  #
    35  # You can have private, shared and public namespaces. Private namespaces
    36  # are for user's personal mails. Shared namespaces are for accessing other
    37  # users' mailboxes that have been shared. Public namespaces are for shared
    38  # mailboxes that are managed by sysadmin. If you create any shared or public
    39  # namespaces you'll typically want to enable ACL plugin also, otherwise all
    40  # users can access all the shared mailboxes, assuming they have permissions
    41  # on filesystem level to do so.
    42  namespace inbox {
    43    # Namespace type: private, shared or public
    44    #type = private
    45
    46    # Hierarchy separator to use. You should use the same separator for all
    47    # namespaces or some clients get confused. '/' is usually a good one.
    48    # The default however depends on the underlying mail storage format.
    49    #separator = 
    50
    51    # Prefix required to access this namespace. This needs to be different for
    52    # all namespaces. For example "Public/".
    53    #prefix = 
    54
    55    # Physical location of the mailbox. This is in same format as
    56    # mail_location, which is also the default for it.
    57    #location =
    58
    59    # There can be only one INBOX, and this setting defines which namespace
    60    # has it.
    61    inbox = yes
    62
    63    # If namespace is hidden, it's not advertised to clients via NAMESPACE
    64    # extension. You'll most likely also want to set list=no. This is mostly
    65    # useful when converting from another server with different namespaces which
    66    # you want to deprecate but still keep working. For example you can create
    67    # hidden namespaces with prefixes "~/mail/", "~%u/mail/" and "mail/".
    68    #hidden = no
    69
    70    # Show the mailboxes under this namespace with LIST command. This makes the
    71    # namespace visible for clients that don't support NAMESPACE extension.
    72    # "children" value lists child mailboxes, but hides the namespace prefix.
    73    #list = yes
    74
    75    # Namespace handles its own subscriptions. If set to "no", the parent
    76    # namespace handles them (empty prefix should always have this as "yes")
    77    #subscriptions = yes
    78
    79    # See 15-mailboxes.conf for definitions of special mailboxes.
    80  }
    81
    82  # Example shared namespace configuration
    83  #namespace {
    84    #type = shared
    85    #separator = /
    86
    87    # Mailboxes are visible under "shared/user@domain/"
    88    # %%n, %%d and %%u are expanded to the destination user.
    89    #prefix = shared/%%u/
    90
    91    # Mail location for other users' mailboxes. Note that %variables and ~/
    92    # expands to the logged in user's data. %%n, %%d, %%u and %%h expand to the
    93    # destination user's data.
    94    #location = maildir:%%h/Maildir:INDEX=~/Maildir/shared/%%u
    95
    96    # Use the default namespace for saving subscriptions.
    97    #subscriptions = no
    98
    99    # List the shared/ namespace only if there are visible shared mailboxes.
   100    #list = children
   101  #}
   102  # Should shared INBOX be visible as "shared/user" or "shared/user/INBOX"?
   103  #mail_shared_explicit_inbox = no
   104
   105  # System user and group used to access mails. If you use multiple, userdb
   106  # can override these by returning uid or gid fields. You can use either numbers
   107  # or names. <doc/wiki/UserIds.txt>
   108  #mail_uid =
   109  #mail_gid =
   110
   111  # Group to enable temporarily for privileged operations. Currently this is
   112  # used only with INBOX when either its initial creation or dotlocking fails.
   113  # Typically this is set to "mail" to give access to /var/mail.
   114  #mail_privileged_group =
   115
   116  # Grant access to these supplementary groups for mail processes. Typically
   117  # these are used to set up access to shared mailboxes. Note that it may be
   118  # dangerous to set these if users can create symlinks (e.g. if "mail" group is
   119  # set here, ln -s /var/mail ~/mail/var could allow a user to delete others'
   120  # mailboxes, or ln -s /secret/shared/box ~/mail/mybox would allow reading it).
   121  #mail_access_groups =
   122
   123  # Allow full filesystem access to clients. There's no access checks other than
   124  # what the operating system does for the active UID/GID. It works with both
   125  # maildir and mboxes, allowing you to prefix mailboxes names with eg. /path/
   126  # or ~user/.
   127  #mail_full_filesystem_access = no
   128
   129  # Dictionary for key=value mailbox attributes. This is used for example by
   130  # URLAUTH and METADATA extensions.
   131  #mail_attribute_dict =
   132
   133  # A comment or note that is associated with the server. This value is
   134  # accessible for authenticated users through the IMAP METADATA server
   135  # entry "/shared/comment". 
   136  #mail_server_comment = ""
   137
   138  # Indicates a method for contacting the server administrator. According to
   139  # RFC 5464, this value MUST be a URI (e.g., a mailto: or tel: URL), but that
   140  # is currently not enforced. Use for example mailto:admin@example.com. This
   141  # value is accessible for authenticated users through the IMAP METADATA server
   142  # entry "/shared/admin".
   143  #mail_server_admin = 
   144
   145  ##
   146  ## Mail processes
   147  ##
   148
   149  # Don't use mmap() at all. This is required if you store indexes to shared
   150  # filesystems (NFS or clustered filesystem).
   151  #mmap_disable = no
   152
   153  # Rely on O_EXCL to work when creating dotlock files. NFS supports O_EXCL
   154  # since version 3, so this should be safe to use nowadays by default.
   155  #dotlock_use_excl = yes
   156
   157  # When to use fsync() or fdatasync() calls:
   158  #   optimized (default): Whenever necessary to avoid losing important data
   159  #   always: Useful with e.g. NFS when write()s are delayed
   160  #   never: Never use it (best performance, but crashes can lose data)
   161  #mail_fsync = optimized
   162
   163  # Locking method for index files. Alternatives are fcntl, flock and dotlock.
   164  # Dotlocking uses some tricks which may create more disk I/O than other locking
   165  # methods. NFS users: flock doesn't work, remember to change mmap_disable.
   166  #lock_method = fcntl
   167
   168  # Directory in which LDA/LMTP temporarily stores incoming mails >128 kB.
   169  #mail_temp_dir = /tmp
   170
   171  # Valid UID range for users, defaults to 500 and above. This is mostly
   172  # to make sure that users can't log in as daemons or other system users.
   173  # Note that denying root logins is hardcoded to dovecot binary and can't
   174  # be done even if first_valid_uid is set to 0.
   175  #first_valid_uid = 500
   176  #last_valid_uid = 0
   177
   178  # Valid GID range for users, defaults to non-root/wheel. Users having
   179  # non-valid GID as primary group ID aren't allowed to log in. If user
   180  # belongs to supplementary groups with non-valid GIDs, those groups are
   181  # not set.
   182  #first_valid_gid = 1
   183  #last_valid_gid = 0
   184
   185  # Maximum allowed length for mail keyword name. It's only forced when trying
   186  # to create new keywords.
   187  #mail_max_keyword_length = 50
   188
   189  # ':' separated list of directories under which chrooting is allowed for mail
   190  # processes (ie. /var/mail will allow chrooting to /var/mail/foo/bar too).
   191  # This setting doesn't affect login_chroot, mail_chroot or auth chroot
   192  # settings. If this setting is empty, "/./" in home dirs are ignored.
   193  # WARNING: Never add directories here which local users can modify, that
   194  # may lead to root exploit. Usually this should be done only if you don't
   195  # allow shell access for users. <doc/wiki/Chrooting.txt>
   196  #valid_chroot_dirs = 
   197
   198  # Default chroot directory for mail processes. This can be overridden for
   199  # specific users in user database by giving /./ in user's home directory
   200  # (eg. /home/./user chroots into /home). Note that usually there is no real
   201  # need to do chrooting, Dovecot doesn't allow users to access files outside
   202  # their mail directory anyway. If your home directories are prefixed with
   203  # the chroot directory, append "/." to mail_chroot. <doc/wiki/Chrooting.txt>
   204  #mail_chroot = 
   205
   206  # UNIX socket path to master authentication server to find users.
   207  # This is used by imap (for shared users) and lda.
   208  #auth_socket_path = /var/run/dovecot/auth-userdb
   209
   210  # Directory where to look up mail plugins.
   211  #mail_plugin_dir = /usr/lib/dovecot/modules
   212
   213  # Space separated list of plugins to load for all services. Plugins specific to
   214  # IMAP, LDA, etc. are added to this list in their own .conf files.
   215  #mail_plugins = 
   216
   217  ##
   218  ## Mailbox handling optimizations
   219  ##
   220
   221  # Mailbox list indexes can be used to optimize IMAP STATUS commands. They are
   222  # also required for IMAP NOTIFY extension to be enabled.
   223  #mailbox_list_index = no
   224
   225  # The minimum number of mails in a mailbox before updates are done to cache
   226  # file. This allows optimizing Dovecot's behavior to do less disk writes at
   227  # the cost of more disk reads.
   228  #mail_cache_min_mail_count = 0
   229
   230  # When IDLE command is running, mailbox is checked once in a while to see if
   231  # there are any new mails or other changes. This setting defines the minimum
   232  # time to wait between those checks. Dovecot can also use inotify and
   233  # kqueue to find out immediately when changes occur.
   234  #mailbox_idle_check_interval = 30 secs
   235
   236  # Save mails with CR+LF instead of plain LF. This makes sending those mails
   237  # take less CPU, especially with sendfile() syscall with Linux and FreeBSD.
   238  # But it also creates a bit more disk I/O which may just make it slower.
   239  # Also note that if other software reads the mboxes/maildirs, they may handle
   240  # the extra CRs wrong and cause problems.
   241  #mail_save_crlf = no
   242
   243  # Max number of mails to keep open and prefetch to memory. This only works with
   244  # some mailbox formats and/or operating systems.
   245  #mail_prefetch_count = 0
   246
   247  # How often to scan for stale temporary files and delete them (0 = never).
   248  # These should exist only after Dovecot dies in the middle of saving mails.
   249  #mail_temp_scan_interval = 1w
   250
   251  ##
   252  ## Maildir-specific settings
   253  ##
   254
   255  # By default LIST command returns all entries in maildir beginning with a dot.
   256  # Enabling this option makes Dovecot return only entries which are directories.
   257  # This is done by stat()ing each entry, so it causes more disk I/O.
   258  # (For systems setting struct dirent->d_type, this check is free and it's
   259  # done always regardless of this setting)
   260  #maildir_stat_dirs = no
   261
   262  # When copying a message, do it with hard links whenever possible. This makes
   263  # the performance much better, and it's unlikely to have any side effects.
   264  #maildir_copy_with_hardlinks = yes
   265
   266  # Assume Dovecot is the only MUA accessing Maildir: Scan cur/ directory only
   267  # when its mtime changes unexpectedly or when we can't find the mail otherwise.
   268  #maildir_very_dirty_syncs = no
   269
   270  # If enabled, Dovecot doesn't use the S=<size> in the Maildir filenames for
   271  # getting the mail's physical size, except when recalculating Maildir++ quota.
   272  # This can be useful in systems where a lot of the Maildir filenames have a
   273  # broken size. The performance hit for enabling this is very small.
   274  #maildir_broken_filename_sizes = no
   275
   276  # Always move mails from new/ directory to cur/, even when the \Recent flags
   277  # aren't being reset.
   278  #maildir_empty_new = no
   279
   280  ##
   281  ## mbox-specific settings
   282  ##
   283
   284  # Which locking methods to use for locking mbox. There are four available:
   285  #  dotlock: Create <mailbox>.lock file. This is the oldest and most NFS-safe
   286  #           solution. If you want to use /var/mail/ like directory, the users
   287  #           will need write access to that directory.
   288  #  dotlock_try: Same as dotlock, but if it fails because of permissions or
   289  #               because there isn't enough disk space, just skip it.
   290  #  fcntl  : Use this if possible. Works with NFS too if lockd is used.
   291  #  flock  : May not exist in all systems. Doesn't work with NFS.
   292  #  lockf  : May not exist in all systems. Doesn't work with NFS.
   293  #
   294  # You can use multiple locking methods; if you do the order they're declared
   295  # in is important to avoid deadlocks if other MTAs/MUAs are using multiple
   296  # locking methods as well. Some operating systems don't allow using some of
   297  # them simultaneously.
   298  #
   299  # The Debian value for mbox_write_locks differs from upstream Dovecot. It is
   300  # changed to be compliant with Debian Policy (section 11.6) for NFS safety.
   301  #       Dovecot: mbox_write_locks = dotlock fcntl
   302  #       Debian:  mbox_write_locks = fcntl dotlock
   303  #
   304  #mbox_read_locks = fcntl
   305  #mbox_write_locks = fcntl dotlock
   306
   307  # Maximum time to wait for lock (all of them) before aborting.
   308  #mbox_lock_timeout = 5 mins
   309
   310  # If dotlock exists but the mailbox isn't modified in any way, override the
   311  # lock file after this much time.
   312  #mbox_dotlock_change_timeout = 2 mins
   313
   314  # When mbox changes unexpectedly we have to fully read it to find out what
   315  # changed. If the mbox is large this can take a long time. Since the change
   316  # is usually just a newly appended mail, it'd be faster to simply read the
   317  # new mails. If this setting is enabled, Dovecot does this but still safely
   318  # fallbacks to re-reading the whole mbox file whenever something in mbox isn't
   319  # how it's expected to be. The only real downside to this setting is that if
   320  # some other MUA changes message flags, Dovecot doesn't notice it immediately.
   321  # Note that a full sync is done with SELECT, EXAMINE, EXPUNGE and CHECK 
   322  # commands.
   323  #mbox_dirty_syncs = yes
   324
   325  # Like mbox_dirty_syncs, but don't do full syncs even with SELECT, EXAMINE,
   326  # EXPUNGE or CHECK commands. If this is set, mbox_dirty_syncs is ignored.
   327  #mbox_very_dirty_syncs = no
   328
   329  # Delay writing mbox headers until doing a full write sync (EXPUNGE and CHECK
   330  # commands and when closing the mailbox). This is especially useful for POP3
   331  # where clients often delete all mails. The downside is that our changes
   332  # aren't immediately visible to other MUAs.
   333  #mbox_lazy_writes = yes
   334
   335  # If mbox size is smaller than this (e.g. 100k), don't write index files.
   336  # If an index file already exists it's still read, just not updated.
   337  #mbox_min_index_size = 0
   338
   339  # Mail header selection algorithm to use for MD5 POP3 UIDLs when
   340  # pop3_uidl_format=%m. For backwards compatibility we use apop3d inspired
   341  # algorithm, but it fails if the first Received: header isn't unique in all
   342  # mails. An alternative algorithm is "all" that selects all headers.
   343  #mbox_md5 = apop3d
   344
   345  ##
   346  ## mdbox-specific settings
   347  ##
   348
   349  # Maximum dbox file size until it's rotated.
   350  #mdbox_rotate_size = 2M
   351
   352  # Maximum dbox file age until it's rotated. Typically in days. Day begins
   353  # from midnight, so 1d = today, 2d = yesterday, etc. 0 = check disabled.
   354  #mdbox_rotate_interval = 0
   355
   356  # When creating new mdbox files, immediately preallocate their size to
   357  # mdbox_rotate_size. This setting currently works only in Linux with some
   358  # filesystems (ext4, xfs).
   359  #mdbox_preallocate_space = no
   360
   361  ##
   362  ## Mail attachments
   363  ##
   364
   365  # sdbox and mdbox support saving mail attachments to external files, which
   366  # also allows single instance storage for them. Other backends don't support
   367  # this for now.
   368
   369  # Directory root where to store mail attachments. Disabled, if empty.
   370  #mail_attachment_dir =
   371
   372  # Attachments smaller than this aren't saved externally. It's also possible to
   373  # write a plugin to disable saving specific attachments externally.
   374  #mail_attachment_min_size = 128k
   375
   376  # Filesystem backend to use for saving attachments:
   377  #  posix : No SiS done by Dovecot (but this might help FS's own deduplication)
   378  #  sis posix : SiS with immediate byte-by-byte comparison during saving
   379  #  sis-queue posix : SiS with delayed comparison and deduplication
   380  #mail_attachment_fs = sis posix
   381
   382  # Hash format to use in attachment filenames. You can add any text and
   383  # variables: %{md4}, %{md5}, %{sha1}, %{sha256}, %{sha512}, %{size}.
   384  # Variables can be truncated, e.g. %{sha256:80} returns only first 80 bits
   385  #mail_attachment_hash = %{sha1}

And this is the output for /etc/postfix/main.cf

 1  # See /usr/share/postfix/main.cf.dist for a commented, more complete version
 2
 3
 4  # Debian specific:  Specifying a file name will cause the first
 5  # line of that file to be used as the name.  The Debian default
 6  # is /etc/mailname.
 7  #myorigin = /etc/mailname
 8
 9  smtpd_banner = $myhostname ESMTP $mail_name (Raspbian)
10  biff = no
11
12  # appending .domain is the MUA's job.
13  append_dot_mydomain = no
14
15  # Uncomment the next line to generate "delayed mail" warnings
16  #delay_warning_time = 4h
17
18  readme_directory = no
19
20  # See http://www.postfix.org/COMPATIBILITY_README.html -- default to 2 on
21  # fresh installs.
22  compatibility_level = 2
23
24  # TLS parameters
25  smtpd_tls_cert_file=/etc/ssl/certs/ssl-cert-snakeoil.pem
26  smtpd_tls_key_file=/etc/ssl/private/ssl-cert-snakeoil.key
27  smtpd_use_tls=yes
28  smtpd_tls_session_cache_database = btree:${data_directory}/smtpd_scache
29  smtp_tls_session_cache_database = btree:${data_directory}/smtp_scache
30
31  # See /usr/share/doc/postfix/TLS_README.gz in the postfix-doc package for
32  # information on enabling SSL in the smtp client.
33
34  myhostname = example.net
35  alias_maps = hash:/etc/aliases
36  alias_database = hash:/etc/aliases
37  mydestination = example.net, localhost.localdomain, localhost
38  mynetworks = 0.0.0.0
39  #mynetworks = 127.0.0.0/8 [::ffff:127.0.0.0]/104 [::1]/128
40  mailbox_size_limit = 0
41  message_size_limit = 50000000
42  recipient_delimiter = +
43  home_mailbox = Maildir/
44  smtpd_sasl_auth_enable = yes
45  smtpd_sasl_type = dovecot
46  smtpd_sasl_path = private/dovecot-auth
47  smtpd_sasl_authenticated_header = yes
48  smtpd_sasl_local_domain = $myhostname
49  broken_sasl_auth_clients = yes
50  smtpd_recipient_restrictions = reject_unknown_sender_domain reject_unknown_recipient_domain reject_unauth_pipelining permit_mynetworks permit_sasl_authenticated reject_unauth_destination
51  smtpd_sender_restrictions = reject_unknown_sender_domain
52  mailbox_command = /usr/lib/dovecot/deliver -c /etc/dovecot/conf.d/01-mail-stack-delivery.conf -m "${EXTENSION}"
53  smtp_use_tls = yes
54  smtpd_tls_received_header = yes
55  smtpd_tls_mandatory_protocols = SSLv3, TLSv1
56  smtpd_tls_mandatory_ciphers = medium
57  smtpd_tls_auth_only = yes
58  tls_random_source = dev:/dev/urandom
59  virtual_alias_maps = hash:/etc/postfix/virtual
60  inet_interfaces = all
1
  • Note that including dozens of comments in your config doesn't make it easier to read. Next time remove those commented lines so that it's immediately clear what the config actually is. – wurtel Aug 31 '18 at 8:43
1

You have:

mail_location = mbox:~/Maildir:INBOX=/var/mail/%u

However you also write that new messages are written to ~/Maildir/new/, which is Maildir format, not mbox.

Change that line to

mail_location = maildir:~/Maildir

and you should be able to read your messages.

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