I do not find any information on etcd database managed by google on kubernetes master nodes. I see how resources (pod/nodes/...) communicates, but I don't know if the data are encrypted before being stored in etcd database.
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When you use GKE, Google takes care of Kubernetes Master on its own. So you don't need to worry about updates, backups, and security. Also, they don't take any fee for Master nodes. You can find more information following this link.
In the context of Google Kubernetes Engine, every cluster includes a master VM that acts as its control plane. Kubernetes Engine’s cluster management includes the following capabilities among others:
- Master VM is automatically scaled, upgraded, backed up and secured
- Master VM is fully managed by Google Site Reliability Engineering (SRE)
- Advanced features that let you choose to automatically repair, upgrade and scale your entire cluster
- Kubernetes Engine comes with a Service Level Agreement (SLA)
Google didn't provide any details about the configuration of Master nodes, including security.