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I have successfully installed and configured Squid Proxy Server 3.5.26 in Slackware 14.2. Im currently logged in as root user and I get an error when starting Squid using the command sudo squid -z:

WARNING: Cannot write log file: /var/log/squid/cache.log
/var/log/squid/cache.clog: Permission Denied
messages will be sent to 'stderr'

2019/04/08  16:16:20 kid1| Set Current Directory to 
/var/log/squid/cache/squid
2019/04/08  16:16:20 kid1| Creating missing swap directories

FATAL: Failed to make swap directory /var/cache/squid: (13) Permission Denied
Squid Cache (Version  3.5.26): Terminated abnormally.
CPU Usage: 0.008 seconds = 0.006 user + 0.002 sys
Maximum Resident Size: 45392 KB
Page faults with physical i/o:0 

Even if i made /var/log/squid permissions to 777. Still the application is unable to write cache.log.

Running :

squid -NCd1

The command outputs:

   WARNING: Cannot write log file: /var/log/squid/cache.log
   /var/log/squid/cache.log: Permission denied
   messages will be sent to 'stderr'.
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| Set Current Directory to /var/log/squid/cache/squid
   WARNING: Cannot write log file: /var/log/squid/cache.log
   /var/log/squid/cache.log: Permission denied
   messages will be sent to 'stderr'.
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| WARNING: Closing open FD    2
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| Starting Squid Cache version 3.5.26 for x86_64- 
   slackware-linux-gnu...
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| Service Name: squid
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| Process ID 1669
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| Process Roles: master worker
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| With 1024 file descriptors available
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| Initializing IP Cache...
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| parseEtcHosts: /etc/hosts: (13) Permission denied
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| DNS Socket created at [::], FD 8
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| DNS Socket created at 0.0.0.0, FD 9
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| /etc/resolv.conf: (13) Permission denied
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| Warning: Could not find any nameservers. Trying to 
   use localhost
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| Please check your /etc/resolv.conf file
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| or use the 'dns_nameservers' option in squid.conf.
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| 
   '/usr/share/squid/errors/templates/ERR_ACCESS_DENIED': 
   (13) Permission denied
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| WARNING: failed to find or read error text file 
   ERR_ACCESS_DENIED
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| 
   '/usr/share/squid/errors/templates/ERR_CACHE_ACCESS_DENIED': (13) 
   Permission denied
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| WARNING: failed to find or read error text file 
   ERR_CACHE_ACCESS_DENIED
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| 
   '/usr/share/squid/errors/templates/ERR_CACHE_MGR_ACCESS_DENIED': (13) 
   Permission denied
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| WARNING: failed to find or read error text file 
   ERR_CACHE_MGR_ACCESS_DENIED
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| 
   '/usr/share/squid/errors/templates/ERR_FORWARDING_DENIED': (13) 
   Permission 
   denied
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| WARNING: failed to find or read error text file 
   ERR_FORWARDING_DENIED
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| '/usr/share/squid/errors/templates/ERR_NO_RELAY': 
  (13) 
   Permission denied
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| WARNING: failed to find or read error text file 
   ERR_NO_RELAY
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| 
   '/usr/share/squid/errors/templates/ERR_CANNOT_FORWARD': (13) Permission 
   denied
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| WARNING: failed to find or read error text file 
   ERR_CANNOT_FORWARD
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| 
   '/usr/share/squid/errors/templates/ERR_READ_TIMEOUT': 
   (13) Permission denied
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| WARNING: failed to find or read error text file 
   ERR_READ_TIMEOUT
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| 
   '/usr/share/squid/errors/templates/ERR_LIFETIME_EXP': 
   (13) Permission denied
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| WARNING: failed to find or read error text file 
   ERR_LIFETIME_EXP
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| '/usr/share/squid/errors/templates/ERR_READ_ERROR': 
   (13) Permission denied
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| WARNING: failed to find or read error text file 
   ERR_READ_ERROR
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| '/usr/share/squid/errors/templates/ERR_WRITE_ERROR': 
   (13) Permission denied
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| WARNING: failed to find or read error text file 
   ERR_WRITE_ERROR
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| 
   '/usr/share/squid/errors/templates/ERR_CONNECT_FAIL': 
   (13) Permission denied
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| WARNING: failed to find or read error text file 
   ERR_CONNECT_FAIL
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| 
   '/usr/share/squid/errors/templates/ERR_SECURE_CONNECT_FAIL': (13) 
   Permission 
   denied
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| WARNING: failed to find or read error text file 
   ERR_SECURE_CONNECT_FAIL
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| 
   '/usr/share/squid/errors/templates/ERR_SOCKET_FAILURE': 
   ( 13) Permission denied
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| WARNING: failed to find or read error text file 
   ERR_SOCKET_FAILURE
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| '/usr/share/squid/errors/templates/ERR_DNS_FAIL': 
   (13) Permission denied
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| WARNING: failed to find or read error text file 
   ERR_DNS_FAIL
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| '/usr/share/squid/errors/templates/ERR_URN_RESOLVE': 
   (13) Permission denied
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| WARNING: failed to find or read error text file 
   ERR_URN_RESOLVE
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| 
   '/usr/share/squid/errors/templates/ERR_ONLY_IF_CACHED_MISS': (13) 
   Permission denied
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| WARNING: failed to find or read error text file 
   ERR_ONLY_IF_CACHED_MISS
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| '/usr/share/squid/errors/templates/ERR_TOO_BIG': 
   (13) Permission denied
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| WARNING: failed to find or read error text file 
   ERR_TOO_BIG
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| 
   '/usr/share/squid/errors/templates/ERR_INVALID_RESP': 
   (13) Permission denied
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| WARNING: failed to find or read error text file 
   ERR_INVALID_RESP
   2019 /04/08 17:26:44| 
   '/usr/share/squid/errors/templates/ERR_UNSUP_HTTPVERSION': (13) 
   Permission denied
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| WARNING: failed to find or read error text file 
   ERR_UNSUP_HTTPVERSION
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| '/usr/share/squid/errors/templates/ERR_INVALID_REQ': 
   (13) Permission denied
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| WARNING: failed to find or read error text file 
   ERR_INVALID_REQ
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| '/usr/share/squid/errors/templates/ERR_UNSUP_REQ': 
   (13) Permission denied
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| WARNING: failed to find or read error text file 
   ERR_UNSUP_REQ
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| '/usr/share/squid/errors/templates/ERR_INVALID_URL': 
   (13) Permission denied
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| WARNING: failed to find or read error text file 
   ERR_INVALID_URL
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| 
   '/usr/share/squid/errors/templates/ERR_ZERO_SIZE_OBJECT': (13) Permission denied
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| WARNING: failed to find or read error text file 
   ERR_ZERO_SIZE_OBJECT
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| 
   '/usr/share/squid/errors/templates/ERR_PRECONDITION_FAILED': (13) 
   Permission denied
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| WARNING: failed to find or read error text file 
   ERR_PRECONDITION_FAILED
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| '/usr/share/squid/errors/templates/ERR_CONFLICT_HOST': 
   (13) Permission denied
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| WARNING: failed to find or read error text file 
   ERR_CONFLICT_HOST
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| '/usr/share/squid/errors/templates/ERR_FTP_DISABLED': 
   (13) Permission denied  
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| WARNING: failed to find or read error text file 
   ERR_FTP_DISABLED
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| 
   '/usr/share/squid/errors/templates/ERR_FTP_UNAVAILABLE': (13) Permission denied
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| WARNING: failed to find or read error text file 
   ERR_FTP_UNAVAILABLE
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| '/usr/share/squid/errors/templates/ERR_FTP_FAILURE': 
   (13) Permission denied
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| WARNING: failed to find or read error text file 
   ERR_FTP_FAILURE
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| '/usr/share/squid/errors/templates/ERR_FTP_PUT_ERROR': 
   (13) Permission denied
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| WARNING: failed to find or read error text file 
   ERR_FTP_PUT_ERROR
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| '/usr/share/squid/errors/templates/ERR_FTP_NOT_FOUND': 
   (13) Permission denied
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| WARNING: failed to find or read error text file 
   ERR_FTP_NOT_FOUND
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| '/usr/share/squid/errors/templates/ERR_FTP_FORBIDDEN': 
   (13) Permission denied
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| WARNING: failed to find or read error text file 
   ERR_FTP_FORBIDDEN
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| 
   '/usr/share/squid/errors/templates/ERR_FTP_PUT_CREATED': (13) Permission 
   denied
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| WARNING: failed to find or read error text file 
   ERR_FTP_PUT_CREATED
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| 
   '/usr/share/squid/errors/templates/ERR_FTP_PUT_MODIFIED': (13) Permission 
   denied
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| WARNING: failed to find or read error text file 
   ERR_FTP_PUT_MODIFIED
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| '/usr/share/squid/errors/templates/ERR_ESI': (13) 
   Permission denied
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| WARNING: failed to find or read error text file 
   ERR_ESI
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| 
   '/usr/share/squid/errors/templates/ERR_ICAP_FAILURE': 
   (13) Permission denied
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| WARNING: failed to find or read error text file 
   ERR_ICAP_FAILURE
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| 
   '/usr/share/squid/errors/templates/ERR_GATEWAY_FAILURE': (13) Permission 
   denied
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| WARNING: failed to find or read error text file 
   ERR_GATEWAY_FAILURE
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| '/usr/share/squid/errors/templates/ERR_DIR_LISTING': 
   (13) Permission denied
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| WARNING: failed to find or read error text file 
   ERR_DIR_LISTING
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| 
   '/usr/share/squid/errors/templates/ERR_SHUTTING_DOWN': 
   (13) Permission denied
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| WARNING: failed to find or read error text file 
   ERR_SHUTTING_DOWN
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| Logfile: opening log 
   daemon:/var/log/squid/access.log
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| Logfile Daemon: opening log 
   /var/log/squid/access.log
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| ipcCreate: /usr/libexec/log_file_daemon: (22) 
   Invalid argument
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| Unlinkd pipe opened on FD 15
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| ipcCreate: /usr/libexec/unlinkd: (22) Invalid 
   argument
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| Store logging disabled
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| Swap maxSize 262144 + 262144 KB, estimated 40329 
   objects
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| Target number of buckets: 2016
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| Using 8192 Store buckets
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| Max Mem  size: 262144 KB
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| Max Swap size: 262144 KB
   2019/04/08 17:26:44| ERROR: /var/cache/squid: (13) Permission denied
   FATAL:     Failed to verify one of the swap directories, Check cache.log
   for details.  Run 'squid -z' to create swap directories
   if needed, or if running Squid for the first time.
   Squid Cache (Version 3.5.26): Terminated abnormally.
   CPU Usage: 0.023 seconds = 0.016 user + 0.007 sys 
   Maximum Resident Size: 58800 KB
   Page faults with physical i/o: 0
0

Check if SELinux is active: sestatus

If yes try to disable it with: setenforce 0 or setenforce Permissive

Or if you use AppArmor, check its status with: apparmor_status

check your AppArmor profile in /etc/apparmor.d/usr.sbin.squid

and/or try to disable AppArmor for your squid binary.

ln -s /etc/apparmor.d/usr.sbin.squid /etc/apparmor.d/disable/usr.sbin.squid

Or just try to disable AppArmor temporary to check if the problem is located there:

service apparmor teardown

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