Let's go through these;
Physical Machine - Boot OS from Local Drive and others from SAN
There are many systems running like this right now everywhere, in particular things like non-virtualised database servers work this way, it's fine and very useful if you need the lowest latencies and to gain access to every last drop of performance - CGI render-farms usually work like this too.
Physical Machine - Boot OS and other Drives from SAN
I've done this once or twice over the years, usually it's a little more 'fragile' than I'd like, yes it works but can take a lot more work to do than the local-disk option, and really all you're doing is saving a little bit extra on your servers by not buying a boot pair and disk controller - personally I can't see me using this in the future.
Virtual Machine - Virtual Disk on Local drive of Hyper - V host, SQL
Data/log/Temp on vSAN
Certainly this works fine, there's a LOT of VMs running like this - most of AWS's VM/Instances work this way, it's very popular indeed. If your hypervisor of choice doesn't allow you to migrated VMs from one local disk to another host and that host's disk then sometimes you might miss out on one of the benefits of virtualisation, the ability to migrate all VMs from a host to allow for it to be fixed/upgraded/patched without user impact. You mention vSAN here, which product are you talking about, if you're talking about VMware's vSAN product then that changes things as you can then run disks locally, have protection from failure and have the ability to migrate from host to host - maybe come back to clear that up?
Virtual Machine - Virtual Disk, SQL Data/log/Temp all in vSAN
In corporate environments this is probably the most frequently used and trusted method right now (though that might change as distributed file systems such as vSAN really take off).
As for the performance of the last option - it depends entirely on the centralised disk array/s you use and the communication methods used to access them. If you use 1Gbps ethernet against a slow disk array then it'll definitely be slower than using local disks, the array manufacturer I prefer, combined with 40Gbps FCoE is way quicker than anything I can connect directly to my server bar NVMe drives. So it really does depend on what that centralised storage is.
I hope this is of some help clarifying your options.