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Questions tagged [software-raid]

RAID solution handled by the operating system.

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Raid 5 replace with read errors

I have a software RAID 5 with 3 disks. For a few days, sda has been giving errors, and today the new disk arrived. I launched mdadm --replace and the process started correctly, but due to read errors ...
Gabriel Rolland's user avatar
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Reassemble BTRFS RAID1 array (was created by mkfs.btrfs)

I've got RAID1 array (4 HDD) from old dead system. Need to reassemble that RAID1 array on a new system. Old and dead linux system was installed to one separate HDD (which is unrecoverable dead) and ...
sinoptic's user avatar
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Imported Linux raid (raid 5) assembled ok but cannot access data

This setup is a little convoluted. I have images of three 8TB drives from another Linux system that contain an md raid-5 setup. I have mounted these images as physical drives in windows (...
Walter ZAMBOTTI's user avatar
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Raid 1 (+0) reports as failed when one drive missing on the underlying raid 1

I have a somehow odd situation, we are trying to solve, but can't figure out. For one server we have a configuration like this: md0 : active raid0 md101[1] md100[0] 642050048 blocks super 1.2 ...
luison's user avatar
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3 votes
2 answers
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What is the risk of putting a RAID superblock at the end of a device?

I want to set up a RAID 1 array using mdadm to store backups (I'll be using rsnapshot to do the actual backups). I've read that using metadata 0.9 or 1.0 format with RAID 1 is advantageous because ...
jhaiduce's user avatar
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mdadm raid drive missing after restart; parititions no longer show in fdisk/gparted

I'm in the process of creating a RAID 1 array with two 2TB disks. I was following the instructions for mdadm on the kernel wiki and successfully started the RAID process. sudo mdadm --create /dev/md/...
scuba_mike's user avatar
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Recovery of failed RAID (RAID10)

I have a hosted server that was configured for RAID10. I didn't perform the original configuration, so I'm trying to handle the scenario delicately. Based on my inspection, they setup x3 RAID10 arrays ...
Malaxes's user avatar
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Linux soft RAID5 does not come up after multiple power failures on some discs, what to do?

I have a backup of all important data. At the end a restore is needed. But I want to first try something before I would go this way and it is a good situation to learn something about all the stuff I ...
ljsdflkjsldfjlsf's user avatar
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43 views

LVM Expand RAID1 with Asymmetric Segments Across 3 Heterogeneous Disks

I have 3 disks: one 1TB drive (A1), one 2TB drive (A2), and one 3TB drive (B). Currently, A2 has data on it in one LV that is 1.6TB in size. A1, A2, and B are PVs, in a volume group MyVG. I desire a ...
byteit101's user avatar
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dRAID, Parity 1 + 1 Distributed Spare Better than basic RAIDz2 for 5x12TB HDDs?

Stumbled on dRAID recently and was grokking the docs for OpenZFS on linux and I came away with a conclusion from the chart that I wanted to double check. This is a brand new system that I'm currently ...
brianclements's user avatar
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trying to rebuild RAID 5 array with failed drive, `/dev/sdc1 has no superblock - assembly aborted`

I have ~20TB MD array spanned across 5 6TB hard drives. yesterday one of the drives failed and the system stopped booting. I'm not very good at Linux, so whenever this happened in the past, I'd simply ...
Nicolas Straub's user avatar
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RAID1 array auto removed a totally physically damaged member disk. Should the disk replacement procedure be any different than standard `mdadm --add`?

RAID Setup One RAID 1 array with 2 members: sda1 sdb1 Due to hardware failure, sda is not visible in /dev/ anymore and the array also does include it anymore (RAID 1 status: S) Playbook to replace ...
David Andreoletti's user avatar
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How to replace failed disk on Linux Raid (mdadm)

I get an input/output error when I list drives with: fdisk -l Failed to read extended partition table (offset=3886721022): Input/output error Disk /dev/sda: 1.8 TiB, 2000398934016 bytes, 3907029168 ...
Leonardo Ramé's user avatar
6 votes
3 answers
2k views

Can I make md (Linux software RAID) more fault tolerant?

I have a particular hard drive in a RAID 1 mirror that gets failed out under heavy load, typically, when I run a full backup. There is nothing wrong with the drive. Ok, it is getting one error when ...
Nick's user avatar
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Which software is recommended for building RAID in Windows 10?

We are running Windows 10 LTSC Enterprise. The workstation has 2 HDDs. I have created RAID1 with Storage Spaces. It is working well. But if I disconnect one of the disks, the notification comes only ...
Elvin Mammadov's user avatar
2 votes
1 answer
152 views

BIOS/Hardware Mirror Drive RAID 1 - Reliability, Consistency and Synchronization

Assuming I have enabled in BIOS a (presumably) hardware RAID in mirror aka RAID1 mode (as opposed to Software-one provided by the OS like Windows Storage Spaces), how is it actually ensuring data ...
Fit Nerd's user avatar
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1 answer
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SSD Configuration choices for a 2-Way-Mirror Software RAID

I want data redundancy for my SSDs, and so would likely be using a software RAID like Windows Storage Spaces in a simple, fully-provisioned 2-way mirror configuration. To minimize the risk of both ...
Fit Nerd's user avatar
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4 votes
2 answers
5k views

Debian 12 (bookworm): Installing a software RAID 1 fails with grub error

For a while I have been trying to set up a new server system with a RAID 1 as boot source. That RAID consists of two 4TB Harddisks. So I boot from an USB stick that I have prepared with the ...
LudgerH's user avatar
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mdadm raid1 showing removed disk

I have a dedicated server which consists of two hard drives with 5 partitions each. NAME MAJ:MIN RM SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINTS sda 8:0 0 1.8T 0 disk ├─sda1 8:1 0 1M 0 part ...
ProfGhost's user avatar
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3 votes
0 answers
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Reading from software RAID in parallel is slower than it "should" be, given other benchmarks

Note: I have seen some somewhat similar questions here, but: none of them concern reading many files in parallel, and most are 10+ years old and concern no-longer-relevant hardware and kernel ...
Daniel McLaury's user avatar
1 vote
3 answers
332 views

mdadm --zero-superblock for all devices of a mdraid?

I found no way to remove a mdraid from a server with one command. I can stop it via mdadm --stop /dev/md0 But the superblock is still in the devices. mdadm --zero-superblock DEVICE needs every device (...
guettli's user avatar
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How can I speed up a zfs resilver on a 24x 16TB drive draid2 array: "117T total... 47 days 02:31:23 to go"

(My apologies for the multiple edits to clarify formatting) As above. The drives show no SMART errors. Is there a way to check for HBA <--> drive communication errors? This is running under ...
docBrian's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
349 views

How does VMWare vSAN's RAID5/6 work

BLUF: How does VMWare's implementation of RAID5/6 work? Below is VMWare's chart for RAID5/6 in vSAN: It seems VMWare is altering RAID's terminology. When I hear RAID6 I think two parity of something; ...
Grant Curell's user avatar
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181 views

Mdadm Raid5 kicking non-fresh drive from array

I set up a mdadm raid5 with 3 drives initially: sdc1, sdd1, sde1. They array creation was successful without issues. Later I decided to extend the array using one more drive. After proper partitioning,...
ricardo3889's user avatar
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492 views

Debian bookworm installation software raid grub fails with dummt error

On a server I'm trying to install Debian Bookworm with software RAID1 with three disks. I'm following this guide. Three disks have been configured to use RAID and I've setup the RAID1 device as in the ...
Postie's user avatar
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1 vote
1 answer
91 views

Replacing a single SSD in 4 disk mixed software RAID 1 & RAID10 system

I'm about to replace a single SSD in a 4 SSD RAID 1 & RAID10 system. My webhoster will only do the drive replacement, but not help with adding it back to the array after. I've not done this before,...
Mr.Boon's user avatar
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SSD Software-Raid-0 Ubuntu not as fast as expected

I have an MB ASRock B650 Phantom with two SSD 1TB Samsung 990 PRO m.2 PCIe 4 drives. I set them up in a software Raid-0 with lukscrypt on Ubuntu. The SSD should reach 7.450 MB/s reading, in my naivety ...
Marc Johnen's user avatar
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1 answer
354 views

ZFS I/O Error, Kernel Panic during import

I'm running a raidz1-0 (RAID5) setup with 4 data 2TB SSDs. During midnight, somehow 2 of my data disks experience some I/O error (from /var/log/messages). When I investigated in the morning, the zpool ...
Jealous_Donut_7128's user avatar
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2 answers
3k views

Best practice to install proxmox (7 or newer) on server

i did a lot of research and i am still wondering, where to install os (proxmox). We have ProLiant DL560 gen8 and gen9. My options: micro SD card 32/64GB, not good because of lots of writings from ...
JanOlMajti's user avatar
3 votes
2 answers
1k views

Is it possible to recover data from an Intel PERC H710 Adapter RAID Controller disks into another server with SAS controller

I have a Dell T420 server with a PERC H710 Adapter RAID Controller. I had a RAID 1 with two hard drives. And another disk into the same controller, with no RAID only for backup. The Motherboard of ...
Olver Hernández Navarro's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
112 views

Migrating server and backup server to bigger RAID 1 (software) arrays

I have 2 boxes. The server (actually an ownCloud server) and a backup server. Both are running Ubuntu servers. The main server has a RAID 1 array of 2x2TB drives. The backup server has a RAID 1 ...
Ben Edwards's user avatar
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0 answers
133 views

Many drives in two RAID6 arrays simultaneously failed, seem to be working after reboot except SMART long test

in my storage server, I operate three RAID6 Linux software arrays. Everything was working fine until it was not. There are two RAID6 arrays and one RAID5 array, all consisting of SATA drives, all ...
michalt's user avatar
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1 vote
2 answers
378 views

Restore 4-Drive RAID5 array after accidentally reinitializing last 2-Drive as RAID0

I have an Asustor NAS with RAID 5 4-Drive running, after system update it reboot into the initialize page in web console, I think it's part of the upgrade process so I started the initialize progress, ...
Charles Chou's user avatar
0 votes
1 answer
240 views

RAID1 M.2 SSD (2 Drives) | 1 Failed, I removed and Replaced with a new one, but its state stays "removed"

I have a Ubuntu Server RAID1 M.2 SSD (2 Drives) where 1 Failed, I removed and Replaced with a new one, but its state stays "removed". I am new to RAID Stuff, Below are my RAID Details: cat /...
tj0xin's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
1k views

Best way to clone a single disk from a Software RAID1 Array in Linux server

How can I clone a single HDD bootable disk from a Software RAID1 Array in Linux server? It is currently a two-disk HDD mirror array. I have physical access to the server, and it has empty bays for ...
jamminjames's user avatar
2 votes
0 answers
99 views

Disk pair not usable after moving from hardware RAID (Windows) to software RAID (Linux)

A long time ago I created a RAID1 pair from the boot menu of a JMicron JMB363 card. All was working fine under Windows and the RAID1 array was recognized as a single disk. I don't remember exactly how ...
Bemipefe's user avatar
  • 115
-1 votes
1 answer
106 views

Is Software RAID1 faster on a larger SSD?

I am evaluating 2 CentOS servers, in terms of performance of reading and writing to the database. The database sits on an SSD RAID1 pair, with MySQL 5.7 on each server. Server 2's specs are a bit ...
janman05's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
362 views

Erratic SMART readings on one member of a RAID 1 array

I am managing a server that uses 2 nvme ssds on RAID 1 connectivity. At once point I lost access to one of the 2 and got my normal raid array degraded mails from mdadm. So I asked from the hosting ...
escozul's user avatar
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0 votes
1 answer
137 views

How to have a RAID1 accessible from both Ubuntu and Windows?

This topic has been discussed many times, but i didn't find anything specific to my situation. I would like to create a RAID1 with 2 sata drives (same brand, model,capacity). My objective is to have ...
Ceccoclat's user avatar
  • 103
0 votes
1 answer
398 views

Insufficient suitable allocatable extents error when performing RAID takeover

To improve performance while still keeping redundancy, I am trying to convert the root file system of a NAS from a RAID 5 logical volume to a RAID 10 logical volume, while keeping the same number of ...
Marwi's user avatar
  • 111
0 votes
1 answer
37 views

Removed failed disk from

I have a problem with a software raid running mirror. One disk is dead and the server cannot find it. Normally I would have removed it as well. mdadm --manage /dev/md0 --remove /dev/sda1 But after it ...
The Tech Guy's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
1k views

Growing a RAID-10 on Synology NAS?

I was hoping to add two additional disks to my Synology NAS. Currently it is configured as a four disk RAID-10, no SHR, BTRFS, single volume system. Unfortunately extending a RAID-10 is not possible ...
TylerDurden's user avatar
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0 answers
185 views

Shrink one of the disks in a multi device BTRFS filesystem

My root partition is running out of space and I have no other SATA slots. I have a BTRFS raid0 and I would like to shrink one of the partitions I used for the BTRFS-raid0 and add it to the root ...
berinaniesh's user avatar
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0 answers
1k views

Slow read speed in ZFS mirror (slower than write speed, and very slow for small chunk sizes)

I have a server running debian on top of a ZFS 3-way mirror of Exos X18 18TB (ST18000NM001J). I'm benchmarking it and I'm finding some surprises for the read rate under certain conditions. But first, ...
Héctor's user avatar
  • 141
0 votes
0 answers
2k views

MDADM Nvme raid Slower than traditional HDD, need enlightenment

I have setup server about 20 days ago with new nvme, before setup raid mdadm the two Nvme samsung 980 pro 1TB i test bench have IO speed average 1.5G/s each nvme, but after creating raid 1, IO nvme ...
Trweb's user avatar
  • 1
0 votes
1 answer
1k views

How to convert mdadm raid1 to single driver and keep the data?

I have a raid1 created by mdadm in the root partition on /dev/nvme1n1p2 and /dev/nvme0n1p2, efi boot partition is on /dev/nvme1n1p1. Then I followed some commands to remove one of the disks and ...
maP1E bluE's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
361 views

DegradedArray event after removing raid with mdadm

My new server (ubuntu22) from hetzner has 2 ssds and and an additional big hdd that is intended to be used for back-ups only. Initially 3 raids were preinstalled, and the biggest part of an hdd was ...
Kasheftin's user avatar
  • 131
0 votes
0 answers
290 views

Unable to Install Linux Mint on RAID

Second week now than I'm trying to setup Linux Mint on software RAID5 without success. I'm able to setup the software RAID5 on the live CD with three 240GB SSD, then the installation setup fails to ...
Guillaume G. Soucy's user avatar
1 vote
1 answer
1k views

Creating a RAID 1 via mdadm ends with completely filled one of drives after sync

I have a server with 2x 1TB NVMe drives and I want them to work in software RAID 1 (mdadm) as a system drive. After creating and waiting for sync of the array I'm ending with one of the drives in ...
janopano12's user avatar
-1 votes
1 answer
61 views

Can RAID be accidentally configured twice?

I am renting a server from Hetzner, which had 2x 8TB disks. I believe they were listed as RAID 1 (though can't find anything to confirm that anymore), which I would have assumed would have given me 16 ...
user2141650's user avatar

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