You can run app on Linux (VSCode, Sublime Text 2, etc) or in WSL and output GUI to Windows workstation to X11Server in MobaXterm (run first and start X Server):
replace you workstation IP. More: https://mobaxterm.mobatek.net/features.html
if it reaches out to interet you can proxy with apache or nginx. Also, you may have port forwarding on your router. Just port forward from the router to the computer & it's port. Probably best to lock down who can access those ports but much easier tahn using citrix.
However, reading your post you're looking for notepad.... So not really. not withot ...
I know of some solutions which meets your description, but those are commercial solutions and might be complex/costly. One is citrix. This is name of the software and the company that produces it. Another is microsoft own Remote desktop service portal, where you publish your apps and they are made available to the end user by a browser URL.
You can publish remote applications in Windows Virtual Desktop.
We have an online learning path that walks you through all the features.