11

I have a similar (albeit smaller) setup, with 12x 2TB disks in a RAID6 array, used for the very same purpose (rsnapshot backup server). First, it is perfectly normal for du -hs to take so much time on such a large, and used, filesystem. Moreover du accounts for hardlinks, which cause considerable and bursty CPU load in addition to the obvious IO load. Your ...


7

Perl CPAN packages installed as Linux distribution packages [Debian/Ubuntu] Install perl packages as your Linux distribution packages if possible. It is possible for WWW::Mechanize on Ubuntu (and other Debian family distributions): Ubuntu – Details of package libwww-mechanize-perl in xenial Package: libwww-mechanize-perl (1.75-1)


7

The problem here is that date is treating the +1 part as the timezone, and not as an extra minute. The extra minute is coming only from the word minutes which is parsed as "add one minute" because it is unclear. You can see this if you try the following commands: Your original command, which is interpreted as if it says "at time zone UTC +1". $ date --...


6

This Filesystem stores a huge amount of small files with very many SEEK operations but low IO throughput. 🎉 This is thing that catches lots of people nowadays. Alas, conventional FSes do not scale any well here. I can give you probably just a few advices when it comes to the set-up you already have: EXT4 over RAID-6 on HDDs: Lower vm.vfs_cache_pressure ...


5

When piping commands together, each will be executed in its own shell. Subsequent programs will not inherit prior programs environment and thus, things like cd are not present anymore. So, if you are in your home directory, say /home/user and execute cd data | cat filename, what happens is that you execute cd data and pipe the output (nothing in this case) ...


4

You have: smtpd_sender_restrictions = reject_unknown_sender_domain smtpd_recipient_restrictions = reject_unknown_sender_domain, reject_unknown_recipient_domain, reject_unauth_pipelining, permit_mynetworks, permit_sasl_authenticated, reject_unauth_destination As these are missing the final permit in the end, only mynetworks and ...


4

A lot of external/third party kernel modules utilise DKMS for this sort of thing.


4

I think I found out: the provider has set up an apt proxy in /etc/apt/apt.conf: Acquire::http { Proxy "http://xxx.the-provider.com:1234"; }; This seems to understand the http://ubuntu/ubuntu. Thanks to https://serverfault.com/users/38644/gerald-schneider for the hint!


4

This is an ongoing problem that only seems to hit Google Chrome. In order to avoid seeing warnings, one can temporarily turn off the repository for GC.


4

This has happened to me before. The reason was that /tmp in ramdisk got filled by random/malevolent uploads. Configure your webserver to use a hard drive temporary upload directory. Also monitor used space in ramdisks, if any. Limit RAM used by php, if applicable. Problems like these take long to solve. Good luck!


4

Troubleshooting Check the routing with ip route get <dst> from <SOME_IP_IN_THE_24> command. Fix it if the command has returned unexpected route. Check the firewall with iptables-save -c. The source address can be overridden by NAT rules. The answer Your issue caused by the MASQUERADE rule. Any source address is rewritten to an ip address, ...


3

Use [Unit] … After=cloud-final.service … [Install] WantedBy=cloud-init.target I ran into this as well. journalctl showed user data stuff running after multi-user and before the target cloud-init was reached. <timestamp> <ip_addr> systemd[1]: Reached target Multi-User System. [snip] <timestamp> <ip_addr> systemd[1]: Starting Execute ...


3

The 200GB SSD disk that you see is called Instance storage (or ephemeral storage) and is destroyed everytime you stop the instance and created new every time you start the instance. That means two things: Don't store any precious data you want to retain over stop/start - it will be all gone when you stop it. These instance storage disks are great for ...


3

Setup a third machine that acts as a NFS server (or use one of the servers as NFS server). Normal Linux file systems can not be mounted from multiple machines.


3

Seems like, in your update, the port 81 server block is direct traffic back to itself with that proxy_pass statement, which would be a reason for it not to return a request at all. Are you trying to hit the upstream defined there? You'd want to change: proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:81/; to proxy_pass http://fastcgi_backend/; if that's the case.


3

The most probably as UEFI is installed (grub-efi-*) the bios boot loader is not installed. You should install boot loader for bios boot (grub-installer, grub-pc-bin, may be some other) and set up the boot using grub installer and customize the parameters if needed. Once everything is working (the easiest way is to try to boot locally with bios boot) you ...


3

AWS has a tool to convert EBS volume device names in /etc/fstab to their UUID values: c5_m5_checks_script.sh The script also checks that the NVMe module is loaded in your OS image, but your newer instance type would not have launched if that was not present.


2

With the exception of the phpmyadmin addition, typically your /etc/nginx/sites-available/default file should look like so in order for it to process PHP: # Add index.php to the list if you are using PHP index index.html index.htm index.nginx-debian.html; server_name _; location / { # First attempt to serve request as file, then # as directory, then ...


2

OpenSSH will unexpectedly apply settings when using Match and not apply settings when not using Match if at some earlier position in the configuration there is another Match block. The following example demonstrates this: Match Group sudo # this is applied to sudo members ClientAliveInterval 20 # this is applied to sudo members AllowTcpForwarding ...


2

I would not recommend manually fiddling around with source code installations and paths. Use pyenv and save yourself the trouble. All you have to do is: Run the pyenv installer Follow the instructions Install the Python versions you need Choose which Python version you want to use for a given directory, or globally For example, to install 3.7, check which ...


2

Your varnish config is sending all requests to an nginx server that is configured to issue a redirect for every request, and then pointing all your HTTPS requests to that varnish server. Unsurprisingly, that is resulting in every request being redirected.


2

If the server hangs before filesystem is mounted (ie, early in boot stage), you are not likely to find anything in log file. Looking at error messages during normal boot process can give you clues In your specific case, the error was in /etc/fstab which can lead to "unable to mount root filesystem" error if you boot without rescue mode.


2

I had the same error today after upgrading docker-ce to version 18.09.0 on Debian 9. I can't give you a solution for that version but going back to version 18.06.1 did make it start again. For Ubuntu this should be: sudo apt-get install docker-ce=18.06.1~ce~3-0~ubuntu Did version 18.09.0 ever work for you? My installation crashed right after upgrading. ...


2

Fail2ban needs to have pyinotify installed to read log files other than via the systemd journal. If it isn't installed, then you should install or reinstall it. For example: sudo apt-get install python-pyinotify After that, restart fail2ban and wait a few minutes for it to chew through the existing log files. (Technically it can also use gamin, but ...


2

Apart from setting an A record in DNS — or adding an entry in your /etc/hosts file — you must of course also request a certificate. You could get a Let's Encrypt certificate if you are using a public DNS name (e.g. www.example.com) or you can make a self-signed certificate when you are using a "private" DNS name (e.g. www.example.lan). A self-...


2

The problem is probably not what your server does, but what its DNS identity looks like when viewed from the internet. If the email is sent from a system that claims to be servername.mydomain.com but whose IP address does not match the address reported by the public internet DNS for servername.mydomain.com, then of course the email is going to be classified ...


2

From the lsattr man page See chattr(1) for a description of the attributes and what they mean. ... The 'e' attribute indicates that the file is using extents for mapping the blocks on disk. It may not be removed using chattr(1). ...


2

I am taking a similar online course and had the same issue. What worked for me was to go to the Download section in www.ubuntu.com. From the Ubuntu Server I choose "Use the traditional installer" link. From there I scrolled up to "Network installer" and I choose the version that I wanted (18.04 LTS in my case). It took me to a page with various ...


2

You can’t share block device with non-clustered file system like NTFS, ReFS, Ext3/4 or ZFS on top... There’s nobody to arbiter concurrent writes, metadata updates etc. Good story here: https://forums.starwindsoftware.com/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=1392 So either you switch to clustered file system or use network redirector like f.e. SMB3 or NFS.


2

Adapting https://wiki.debian.org/ReadonlyRoot#Make_apt-get_remount_.2F_if_needed probably would work. I'd give this variant a try: DPkg { Pre-Invoke { "systemctl stop nginx"; }; Post-Invoke { "systemctl start nginx"; }; }; Put this into a file and place it in /etc/apt.conf.d. It will not check if the upgrade 'interferes' with your nginx ...


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